While the lessons on the time of National Socialism should be significantly reduced, the German-American Touro College launched its own degree program, which deals with the "Mediation of incomprehensible" employed
The end of World War II is now 63 years back. Most of the contemporary witnesses have already died, and thus the opportunity of the fourth post-war generation is wear to make at least indirectly even an impression of the difficult to explain events of the years 1933 to 1945. Nevertheless, the short duration of the "thousand-year kingdom" is still following today – in many psychological, political and social dimensions, but also in crime statistics.
The police registered in Marz 2008 nationwide 1.311 violence with right-wing extremric background. In Marz 2007, this number was still located at 853, in Marz 2002, 188 such crimes were paid.
For Oliver Decker, assistant to the self-contained department for medical psychology and medical sociology of the University of Leipzig, suggest such numbers that the "narcissistic seal" refuses again and again and an insufficiently processed National Socialist ideas also takes place in later generations.
The prosperity of the economic miracle time, so decker recently in the presentation of the conducted study a look into the middle. For the emergence of right-wing extremists and democratic attitudes (the right-wing extremist everyday life of the Germans), have no place for self-critical reflections or even shambing – as a similar applicable for the short elimination of the wall after the fall of the wall.
Always when the prosperity is crushed as a seal, anti-democratic traditions rise from the cavity again.
The closed study commissioned by the Friedrich-Ebert Foundation is waiting for a number of frightening results. Thus, 36.9 percent of respondents agreed to "The foreigners come here only to exploit our welfare state". 34.9 percent could look for the proposal "If workplaces are scarce, you should return the outlands back to their homeland". And 39.1 percent fell by the assertion "The Federal Republic is addressed by the many foreigners in a dangerous MAB". The proportion of those who carry out a dictatorship, approve chauvinist or social arwinistic attitudes, and the time of national socialism, is therefore far more high than decades of more or less dedicated work-up of the Nazi past.
Whether a person can deal critically with the history of their own country, however, not only depends on the personal attitude. The family and social environment play an important role here, but then also schools and comparable institutions that give the adolescents send the relevant historical information and drove an intensive debate against this background.
We can find even at today 20- to 30-yearly that a democratic attitude is often associated with a work-up of the Nazi past, the shame and guilt allocated the family entanglements.
The third rich in seven hours
The tensment of the high school time of nine to eight years (G 8) now represents the historical consciousness of another challenge. Because the partially drastic shorts of the lesson plan also affects the subject of history and here the time span, in which a self-renowned driver and his willing executors drifted their misrepresentation. The Bavarian Ministry of Culture was recently known for headlines as well known that the above-mentioned upper class lessons should be procured to seven hours at the school year 2009/10. After all, ten hours are available for the "History of the Middle East", even if the curriculum does not necessarily arouse the impression that everybody of a structured and targeted work come here at its expense.
By procuring with selected epochs of the History of the Middle East, the Schuler recognizes that dominant, economic, religious, nationalist, power-political and ideological conflicts in this space have been compressed into an increasingly complex problem bundle, which are understood only taking into account the historical roots can.
State Institute for School Qualitat and Educational Research Munchen
Ludwig Unger, press spokesman of the Bavarian Ministry, especially not confused by the difficult formulations to penetrating formulations, and made a completely different bill anyway.
24 hours and not 7 hours, as wrongly claims, the schoolers of the eight-year-old high school deal with National Socialism. These hours are distributed over the grades 9 and 11. (…) The curriculum in the course of history also increases the constituence of the state of Israel and its development. The topic of Israel is thus considered much broader in history lessons in the eight-year-old high school as earlier. In doing so, the endangered situation of the state of Israel in the Middle East and also explicitly picked up the ratio of Israel to the Federal Republic.
The attempt to loose from the "genetic-chronological structural concept" of past decades and instead to put on a "science propadetic access", which should enable the schoolers "a multi-perspective, method-oriented work on exemplary topics" has been stobbing for weeks on a violent contradiction. Not only Charlotte Knobloch, Prasident of the Central Council of the Jews in Germany, believes that the scheduled teaching units are by no means sufficient, "to illuminate all important facets of the Nazi time deep reason".
Master’s program "Holocaust and Tolerance"
This association was allowed to share the lecturers at the Touro College in Berlin-Charlottenburg, but the German-American education institute is not just about the duration, but above all about the quality of historical confrontation. Since the winter semester 2007/08, around two dozen students are in Europe-wide unique Master’s degree program "Holocaust communication and tolerance" enrolled. The aim of the two-year training, for the pro-semester degrees of study in the high of 3.000 Euro are raised, on the one hand is the deepening of historical knowledge, on the other hand the procurement with various mediation skills.
Andreas Nachama, fellow director of the Foundation Topography of the terror and basic deck of the Holocaust Institute, wants to meet a basic problem of presentation and communication of historical events in this way.
The aim of our degree program is to convey the example of the Holocaust, as history in the public can be communicated and illustrated alive and illustrated.
Above all, Nachama worries the fact that there will be hardly any contemporary witnesses and the intensive work with the destruction of the European Jews with more and more people causes strict defense reactions. How different reports show, the school lessons in many places boredom or disinterest. With the "Nazi stuff" If you can do a little, an 18-year-old school doctor is quoted from Bavaria, which obviously does not represent a minority opinion.
In the end, the class tightly made, the teacher did not come through with interesting aspects.
Katharina (18), Schulerin
"Fascism as an adventure offer"
The psychologist and sociologist Gudrun Brockhaus, author of the provocative book "Lauder and idyll. Fascism as an adventure offer" therefore, therefore, rightly describes the relationship between the historical topic and the modern recipient circle as a complex communication scope.
The teaching targets are normative, focused on the production of clefment and moral values – and actions. They set a very high bar with a huge span, which is meandering for many traces and can easily abort. The thus dedicated stands from the outset with high sensitivity to returns and disinterest. While otherwise in school, the storage formation of school system and teachers on which one side and schoolers on the other side is tolerated as self-consuming, this topic creates a high harmonary demand: all should be agreed, dedicated to the matter, all the Nazis who condemn the alignment of foreigners, the tolerance praise etc.
The Touro College wants this problem already in the "Basic Module Holocaust Communication" give a wide room.
The students analyze the presentation of the Holocaust in Meniards, memorial, construction and museums. The mediation in radio and television, in documentaries and feature films, in public speeches and rituals is based on the topic of this module. The students should learn to use the effectiveness of communication, but also to recognize the values and interests transmitted beyond the fact.
Uberdies should be redeemed to the grown distance to the customers of historical information. For this purpose, the college promises to the world around 26.000 young people study, in the third semester multimedia lessons on the high of the technical possibilities.
Information, press and public work, marketing and internet presence, and newsletters obedient to the necessary part of the work. It’s not just about the historical pracisse, educational sensitive mediation of content, but also the addressees to make a corresponding offer attentive. (…) Fundraising is ultimately in the main facilitated communication between donors and taking.
History (s) without witnesses
The fact that the procurement with historical events is fundamentally possible without numbers, data, facts and moods through contemporary witnesses can be verified, is a question. On the other hand, the chamber of well-known institutions, such as the remembrance, responsibility and future, demonstrates the thousands of contemporary witnesses with children and adolescents, which importance to the authentic experience report is attached in particular to the time of National Socialism. "History without witnesses so that the memory remains alive, the gross challenge of history teaching will be the future," believes Peter Michael Minnema, headmaster of the Duisburg Steinbart-Gymnasium.
How this challenge can be forced, is currently difficult to greatly say. After all, a number of interesting pilot projects suggest that it hardly has to be discussed to be discussed on the need to break new Padagogical and didactic ways. Thus, the center for anti-Semitism research has a joint project with the Gutenberg High School Berlin-Lichtenberg, the Walther-Gropius School Berlin-Neukolln, the Kurt-Tucholsky School Berlin-Pankow, the Rosa Luxembourg School in Potsdam and the 141. High School in Dresden-Gorbitz, in whose course the young people were confronted with current forms of anti-Semitism, discriminatory language use and xenophobic behavior.
The focus is on the application of the Youth Leadership Program (YLP), a concept developed in 1981 from American Jewish Committee (AJC) for school projects in the USA, which provides for work with adolescents at schools outside the regular lesson. Interested Schuler Uben on a voluntary basis in small groups, as they can positively influence their peer group through courageous and informed appearance against prejudice. The program is based on the realization that a coarse part of the adolescents of one or more groups or cliques affect each other, which have a same or similar status and possess the same age. In these groups, adolescents communicate at the same level and work on upcoming development tasks. Youth Leader act as multipliers in these groups. You can convey learning content with more emotional participation credibly and take over as supporting functions in the lesson design.
Center for anti-Semitismus research
In addition to practical training, teacher training courses were offered and new teaching materials in the form of a multimedia CD-ROM were provided.
Anne Frank Center has taken a different way in Berlin. Here, the second "Graphic Novel" was presented in January, which should serve as teaching material for 13- to 15-year schoolers. In the comic "the search", the grandchildren tell the story of a Judian family, which was deported to Auschwitz and convey so historical facts about the Holocaust.
First reviews of Schulern and teachers are already available. Accordingly, the unusual approach, which was tested in 18 German classes, but also in schools in Hungary and Poland, is quite intent to convey complex facts clearly. About the empathy with the characters of comic history, the schoolers are able to "develop a personal and multi-perspective reference to the history of the Holocaust," said the involved platforms.
Successful ready to mark only early stage destinations on a long way. But the clear knowledge of a thinking and need for action is certainly paying more than premature patent recipes in this case.
If one sees that about 25 percent of society is potentially teasing anti-Semitic, then one will once see that there is a deficit. If one sees that the election results are very high for right-wing-radical parties, that someone on the strain, which is an exercise as a Jew, because he bears a Kippa, gets a knife in the stomach with anti-Semitic remarks, then see One shows that in this society obviously there is the need, what we have made so far, to think again, and to consider what you can do better and what you can do differently.