Urban development from below without city building
Once they were the terror of the city planner, now supported administrations projects for temporary use of inner-stadtic broken flats. Even if intermediate users liked permanently on empty flat and homes, the limits of property rights set their projects a frame (cf. Also urban conversion by communication).
While the city planner Ode and abandoned buildings and areas are left in the bads for years, until a new investor or a city’s construction project finds or simply nothing happens, occupy alternative users shortly the brakes. And discover new development options between stream and sandball.
Ponybar in Berlin-Mitte in a chemical. Despite the rough demand, the operators can use only 20 square meters for their garden pub.
Unlocked industrial areas transform into skate railways, draw in empty-standing shops and ground fashion and music labels. Away from trusted regulations, land surveys conquer a space in which much is possible. For a long time, such intermediate users, where they were not expelled, more tolerated as scatzed. But now some city administrations and the now seem to be as "Urban pioneers" Recognize recognized users and draw them on a common strand to revive empty flats. One reason for the new tolerance of the resistant is simply the lack of money to realize expensive city planning solutions.
How a urban development can transform the ode into a busy country, shows a study based on many examples from Berlin. In the city, the Senate relies with temporary projects in construction to develop a new urban quality. Breakfast is there in Berlin, many of them in the middle of the city. Zones that separate straws and home lines of a quarters roughly. The spatial pioneers, the Senate administration for urban development hopes, with their projects, the free space has returned to the city.
And the intermediate users hope for the realization of their own lifestyles, for which they need freedom.
The spatial pioneers are no longer politically motivated persons such as the housekeepers, but people who have arrived in society and now want to try something new.
The landscape architect describes in his study Urban Pioneer 40 different initiatives. Sing one’s own business ideas and open a pub in a chemical, others play golf on Ackern, until the Federal Court of First Instance on the Grundstuck begins with the construction works for its new headquarters. Cultural and social projects can be realized in empty houses.
240 members paid the exercise plant "Golf for everyone" in Berlin-Adlershof, which was tolerated until 2004. Since that’s the grand country broke again.
Overmeyer works in the architecture Buro Urban Catalyst and developed the study for the Senate administration for urban development. The investigation, embedded in a lot of theory, with numerous project descriptions and a guide for the intermediate users themselves, has been published in Jovis Verlag.
With the advancing deindustrialization, the vacancy and demolition of factories and warehouses entails, there are increasingly more inner-stadtical ODLAND and more and more unfit options for room pioneers. Further buildings empty in the course of demographic change. More and less schools and kindergarten, for example, forecasting overmeyer and his coaxors, were no longer used. In Berlin, the demolition of disk buildings in coarse settlements and the retention of two airport further bracken. Added 320 hectares of abandoned friedhofe in the next few years. With so many flats maybe another pretty side effect will result and an inner-stadtical wilderness arise.
But where there is a member of a gel standing, this is not too farmer. Therefore, the space pioneers are now able to be sure of the toleration as well as state support, as numerous examples in Overmeyer’s book. From the ABM site to the cheapest of a basic piece, the measures are sufficient to support the state-owned bodies.
In addition, there is also a lot of regulations to be observed. Attrayers must be made in the district office, larm protection regulations, recovering sanitary facilities and made various safety precautions before a pub may open as a reinforced beach. Or guys and girls can roar over a skater ramp.
With numerous regulations, some officials do not even make the intermediate users easy to realize their ideas, such as the testimonials of urban pioneers show. Therefore, some users wish more deregulation in order to achieve faster and easier to realize their projects. Sajjid Ahmad, who built the intercultural garden in Berlin-Kopenick, reports overnight from completely different reserved by the authorities. Whether people from Precaren layers could run out of a project, the initiator of the intercultural garden in Berlin-Copenick was asked. "One could not or did not want to imagine that immigrants, Aussiedler and ALG II receptionist together gardens, in communication and so socially integrated", says Ahmad. Meanwhile, people from different cultures build on 4000 square meters of fruit and vegetables in the garden.
Intermediate user as a luckbuber
Above all, there is a chance to try something new with a few means – "Add something to the legs outside a recycling logic", so overmeyer.
Many of today’s land surveys are looking for the study a way to start their professional career in unconventional way. Well, the half of the surveyed users planned to profound themselves as an entrepreneur in commercial, cultural or non-wealth-oriented projects. In addition to the public demand, for many of them the sponsoring is an important source of revenue. Only one third of all intermediate users work volunteers.
You’re compromising from the beginning. The beneficial room is only available on the condition of a limited use of time. Otherwise, owners are difficult to move to provide large flats that are available. Missing capital replace the intermediate users by own work. In the study it is called: "Room pioneers Recycle found structures with low effort, repair or yield the technical infrastructure and take as few unique structural changes." Because too much effort was not worthwhile at the prospect of a move.
In 2003, teenagers spontaneously shook a railway for BMX raders, which lived near the ride in Berlin-Marzahn. In 2004, the district designed the flat using wood and metal elements.
Nevertheless, with the commitment of the desire to settle in the long term and permanently. As a rule, however, owners only cancel over a temporary use or contract with a short rated period. Because between use is still opposed to the exploitation interests for real estate.
The owners benefit from the intermediate use, which could lead to an enhancement by the revival of basic opportunities. Possible vandalism is prevented, but also costs for maintenance can be flooded on the intermediate users. With a spectacular cultural project, a bridge quickly lends itself to the touch of exclusivity. But not all intermediate users make theater or art. And so many owners are the room impioning just reserved opposite.
About the reason for the project developer Rainer Emenlauer speaks:
The factor between nut suppication is considered too risky because it is not calculable…In the case of broken flakes, it is often idealists who have no economic basis and long-term objective. That can develop later. But you do not wife it in advance.
In addition, the intermediate use in the industry is often evaluated as an indication that a property "burnt" and no longer be marketed at normal prices. Only 16 percent of the intermediate users pay a market-free lease in Berlin, and 63 percent, but no or only a symbolic amount. The incurable users pay little or bring only the operating costs.
If the leap on a bands but first managed, the already mentioned exhibits begin with the registry. Between both parties, the book of Overmeyer mooded. The Senate Department for urban development and other administrations could serve as a manual to deal with the phenomena of urban pioneers. For the authorities, the authors introduce themselves to the role of a moderator and initiator, which the owners could move to allow more intermediate use.
Much more scope do not have the municipalities, because no one can be forced to leave his ownership of space pione. With quick decisions and regulations that you do not drive in the ruin, however, were already helped many projects so that the innovative potential of a urban planning did not land from below.
The social conflict therefore who is allowed to shape the face of the city as well as it seems to decide for the time being. Where there is a regular investor, the room pioneers must switch and change to places whose development and use are not rewarded. Just part of the Jungendsportpark Mellowpark in Berlin-Copenick on his website to be built on its grandfather. The Senate administration but an alternative primary stud. Of course, there is also a room for other initiatives to take out of the center of the city to the Rander. And so Berlin is again lost a stucco-cultural diversity, which had to be supported by the Senate with the demand for intermediate use.